Plantagenet King: Edward III

1327  Edward III accedes to the English throne on the 25th January, after his father: Edward II renounced his throne, in favour of his son, Edward III.  He was crowned on the 29th January and ruled England with his mother: Isabella of France and her lover, Roger Mortimer as his Regents.

1328  King Edward III married Philippa of Hainault on the 24th January in York.

They were blessed with nine children, who reached adulthood:

Edward (The Black Prince), Isabella, Joan, Lional (Duke of Clarence), Mary, John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster), Margaret, Edmund (Duke of York) and Thomas (Duke of Gloucester).

1329  Edward III formerly recognizes Scotland as an independent nation, and part of England.

Edward bitterly resented giving independence to Scotland, and he saw his chance to win Scotland back, when Robert Bruce died.

David, the new King of the Scots, was Edward’s brother – in law.

1330  Edward takes over power, as ruler of his kingdom, after three years of governing by his regents; Isabella of France and her lover Roger Mortimer.

Roger Mortimer is executed, as for his mother, he allows her to live out the rest of her life at Castle Rising.  She was not allowed to leave the grounds.  She haunts this castle, her final resting place, where she died on the 22nd August 1358, and her screams and manic laughter can still be heard to this day.

1332  Exiled barons, who supported Robert Bruce, invaded Scotland, headed by Edward Baliol, who became King of Scotland, upon their victory, only to be driven out a few months later.

Parliament, is divided into two houses; the Lords and Commons, and English becomes the common language, replacing the Norman French language.

1333  Edward III defeated the Scots at Halidon Hill.

1337  The French King; Philip VI seizes Edward’s Duchy of Aquitaine.  Edward’s response was to declare himself as the rightful heir to the French throne, as grandson of Philip IV, and his mother; Isabella… The result was the “100 Years War,” with France.

1340  On the 24th June, an English fleet of ships, destroyed the French navy at Sluys, and the ensuing war was fought on French soil.

1342  The rebuilding of Windsor Castle commenced.

Edward went to Brittany and fought against the French, proving himself a military warrior in the process.

1344  In the January, King Edward III held a Round Table Tournament at Windsor, known as the “Order of the Garter” originally consisting of 300 knights dressed in blue robes, with St.George as their patron.

1346  Edward III accompanied by his son Edward (The Black Prince), defeated the French King; Philip VI at the “Battle of Crecy” on the 26th August.

King David II of Scotland invades England, and was defeated at Neville’s Cross, where he was taken prisoner.

1347  Edward attacks Calais, which is captured by his forces… With a high success rate, he was forced to make a truce, as money ran out.

1348  On the 23rd April at the feast of St.George, he announced that the “Order of the Garter”£ would be reserved for 24 knights, who showed their loyalty to their King, and chivalry on the battlefield.  At the head would be King Edward III and Edward, the Black Prince, making a total of 26 knights.

1348/1349  Black Death arrives in England, and takes the livces of one-third of its population.

1356  Edward the Black Prince defeats the French at Poiters, and takes King John II of France prisoner.

1357  King David II of Scotland is released from captivity.

1360  King John II of France, is released from captivity, after promising to pay a ransom, leaving Louis of Anjou in English held Calais as hostage.

Edward now controlled a quarter of France.  His success rate, consolidated the support of his nobles, and eased criticism of the taxes, which paid for the war with France. 

1364  Louis escapes from Calais, forcing John to return to England, for he could not pay the ransom.  He lived out the remainder of his life in England.

1369  The French take back the lands of Aquitaine, and war with England and France, kicks off again.

1370  Edward the Black Prince, massacres 3,000 people at Limoges.

1373  John of Gaunt leads an invasion into France, on the borders of Burgundy.

John of Gaunt returns home, Edward III his father, and Edward the Black Prince are both ill.

1375  The French King; Charles V, reversed England’s conquest in the “Treaty of Bruges” reducing Edward’s gains to Calais and coastal areas of Bordeaux, which received much criticism in England.

1376  Parliament elected the first speaker who would represent the Commons, and an attack on high taxes and critism against the King’s advisers.  Furthermore, he refused to grant their King anymore money to continue his war with France.

Edward the Black Prince dies, and with it, Edward III lost his mind over the latter years of his life.  He was heart-broken.

1377  King Edward III, died on the 21st June aged 64 at Sheen Palace, Surrey and was buried at Westminster Abbey. 

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