Julius Caesar’s invasion force landed on Britain’s south-coast in 55 BC, and found it inhabited by Celtic tribes. In 56 BC Caesar returned to Britain, and came face to face with the Catevellauni, whom he defeated in battle. Caesar set up treaties and alliances before withdrawing his forces, and so the Roman occupation of Britain had begun.
In AD43, Emperor Claudius sent Aulus Plautius with a force of some 24,000 Roman soldiers to Britain, with orders to establish a military presence. By AD79 England and Wales were under Roman control.
Emperor Vespasian believed Scotland should also become part of the Roman Empire, but they resisted the Romans.
Julius Agricola, Governor of Britain was faced with a formidable task. By AD81 he had subdued southern Scottish tribal clans of Selgovae, Novantae and Votadini. Roman forces headed northwards, intent on provoking the Caledonians into battle against hardened Roman warriors. They met at Mons Graupius, where Romans were victorious, as 10,000 Caledonians were slain in battle, at the cost of only 360 Romans. The following day, surviving clansmen fled into the hills, remaining resistant to Roman rule.
Hadrian became Emperor of the Roman Empire in AD117, and under his orders, the Roman Empire no longer expanded. In AD122 upon his visit to Britain in, ordered the construction of a wall from the North Sea to the Irish Sea; Solway Firth in the West to the River Tyne in the East. If he couldn’t rule or control these Scottish barbarians, he built a wall; “Hadrian’s Wall” some 73 miles in length, 10 feet in width, and 15 feet in height, across open country, keeping them out of Britain.
The Roman’s built mile castles (small forts) which housed garrisons of some sixty men, every mile with towers every third of a mile. Sixteen larger forts, holding 500-1,000 soldiers were built along the length of the wall, with large gates on the walls north face, and a wide ditch, with six foot high earth banks on the south side of the wall…
This massive structure, stretching across northern Britain was constructed by legionaries, taking six years to complete.
Much of the wall remains to this day, despite parts being used for road building and houses over the centuries. This wall is nearly 1900 years old, a testament of Roman construction.