Guido Fawkes: Enemy of the state

Guy Fawkes was born on 13th April 1570, at Stonegate, Yorkshire.  His father Edward Fawkes was a notary proctor of the ecclesiastical courts and an advocate of the consistory court of the Archbishop of York.  His mother Edith Blake was a descendant of the Harrington family of prominent merchants from York.

His father Edward Fawkes died and was buried at St.Michael-le-Belfry on 17th January 1578, and left him a sizeable inheritance when he attained the age of twenty one.

His mother Edith Blake re-married Dionysius Bainbridge, and between them they made use of Guy’s inheritance, before he came of age.

Guy came of age in 1591, and proceeded to dispose of part of his inheritance; the Clifton estate that he had inherited from his father.

Guy Fawkes left his homeland in the early 1590’s, with one of the Harrington cousins, who later became a priest.  He enlisted in the Spanish Army under the command of Archduke Albert of Austria, who went on to be Governor of the Netherlands.  Fawkes rose to the position of a Commander when the Spaniards took Calais under the orders of King Philip II of Spain in 1596.

Guy’s appearance was one of presence.  A tall powerfully built man, with reddish brown hair, flowing moustache and a bushy beard.  During the battle of Nieuport in 1600, he came to the attention of Sir William Stanley, Hugh Owen and Father William Baldwin, when he was wounded during the battle.

Guy went to Spain on behalf of Sir William Stanley in February 1603, and with the assistance of Christopher Wright seeked out Spanish support for an invasion of England upon the death of Queen Elizabeth.  Upon his return Sir William Stanley presented him to Thomas Wintour.

In late spring, Guy was invited by Robert Catesby to accompany Thomas Wintour to Bergen in order to meet with the Constable of Castille; Juan De Velasco, who was due at the court of King James I to discuss the treaty between Spain and England.

In May 1604, Guy Fawkes met with Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright and Thomas Wintour at the Duck and Drake Inn, in what then was considered a fashionable part of London.  It was here under oath, the gunpowder conspiracy was formed.

March 1605, saw the members of the conspiracy fill the cellar beneath the Houses of Parliament, with barrels of gunpowder, iron bars and faggots.

The scheduled opening of Parliament on 28th July 1605 was delayed to 5th November due to the ever present threat of the plague.

May 1605, Guy travelled overseas, and informed Hugh Owen of the plotters plan.  Somehow his name reached the ears of Robert Cecil; First Earl of Salisbury, for he was a well known Flemish Mercenary, but the information did not reach him until late November, well after the plot had been discovered.

Guy returned to England, and he and Wintour discovered in August 1605, that the gunpowder had decayed, and ordered more gunpowder was brought in.

Guy Fawkes final role in the plot was to light the fuse, and escape across the Thames.

A few conspiritators were concerned for the safety of fellow Catholic’s who would be present at the opening of Parliament.  Lord Monteagle received a letter, warning him to stay away, and showed the letter to King James.  The King ordered a search of the cellars under Parliament in the early hours of 5th November.  Sir Thomas Knyvet, caught Guy Fawkes leaving the cellar shortly after midnight… they discovered the hoard of gunpowder, and averted the blowing up of Parliament.

Under interrogation, Fawkes said it was his intention “to blow you Scotch beggars back to your native mountains, and place Princess Elizabeth on the Throne.”

The eight plotters; (Guido Fawkes – Thomas Wintour – Robert Wintour – Ambrose Rookwood – Robert Keyes – Thomas Bates John Grant – Robert Catesby) were found guilty of treason, and condemned to be drawn backwards to their deaths, by a horse.  They were to be put to death halfway between heaven and earth.  Their genitals would be cut off and burnt before their eyes and their bowels and hearts removed.  They would then be decapitated so they might become prey for the fowls of the air, by order of The Attorney General; Sir Edward Coke.

Guy Fawkes body parts were distributed to the four corners of the Kingdom, as a warning to other would be traitors.

The Great Fire of London (1666)

In the latter years of the 17th century, London had grown in size to become the largest city in London, with an estimated 80,000 inhabitants.

The city was surrounded by a ring of suburbs where many people were known to live.  The City of London had become the commercial heart of the capital, and was by far the largest market and busiest port in England.

The layout of the city was one of narrow, winding and cobbled alleys, and many buildings were constructed from wood with thatched roofs.  So fires were common in the city, which were known to house the poor, with their open fireplaces, candles and ovens.

In those day’s there was no fire brigade to call in for help, yet the River Thames would have been a great help, for those who lived on the river’s edge.  Yet they ran a service known as “Trained Bands” who watched out for fires, and the public banded together to fight fires.

1666, had been a long and dry summer, and buildings were tinder dry.  In the early hours of Monday 3rd September, at Thomas Farriner’s Bakery in Pudding Lane a fire broke out.

It took an hour before the parish constable arrived, to find neighbours dousing the fire with water, but observed it was having little effect on the flames as it licked at the adjoining houses.  He wanted to demolish the adjoining houses, but the householders protested.

The Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas Blood, was summoned, for he had the authority to order the destruction, as a matter of law.

By now more experienced firefighters were battling with the fire, but wanted him to order the destruction of adjoining properties.  Yet he refused to give the order, as many of the properties in question were rented, and finding the owners could be difficult at such short notice.  He made a comment “Pish! A woman could piss it out” and left… I bet he regretted his decision that day.

On the Sunday after the outbreak, Samuel Pepys a senior Naval Officer at that time, observed from the Tower of London: Some churches, about three hundred houses had been destroyed, and some houses on London Bridge had been completely destroyed whilst others still burned.

So it was, Samuel Pepys made a report to the King and the Duke of York, of what he observed.  The order was given to pull down the burning houses, and any adjoining houses to stop the spread of the fire.  By mid-morning, attempts to put out the fire had been suspended as people gathered together their belongings, and headed away from the fire.

King Charles II sailed down from Whitehall to inspect the scene for himself.  The Lord Mayor had been ordered to pull down the houses, but many were still left standing, forcing the King to order mass destruction of property to the west of the fire… yet, it was too little too late, it was obvious the fire was now out of control.

Some eighteen hours after the alarm had been raised; the fire had become a raging firestorm, burning anything that stood in its way.

By dawn on Monday 3rd September, the fire was expanding towards the north and west, and south of the banks of the River Thames.  Then later turned north, heading for the financial part of the city; home to the banking institutions.  This led to a rush upon the banks, and the removal of the gold; the wealth of the city and the country lay in its strong rooms.

The Royal Exchange caught fire by mid-afternoon, and within hours is was nothing more than a smoking shell.

Boats and carts laden down with peoples goods, headed out of the reach of the fire, to the open fields and beyond, where tents and shelters were being erected … what a spectacle what a backdrop … as London burnt.

King Charles put his brother, James the Duke of York in charge of operations to stop this fire and save as much of London.  He pressed ganged lower class people into the job, paying them well and feeding them, thus creating teams of fire fighters, battling against this raging fire destroying the heart of the city.  His actions won him the hearts of the people, in his defence of the city.

On Tuesday 4th September, James believed he had created a natural firebreak, as his fire fighters made their stand at Fleet Bridge down to the River Thames, and his River Fleet would form a firebreak.   As the fire approached, a gust of wind helped the fire on, and it jumped over his men, and they were forced to run for their lives.

No one believed St.Pauls Cathedral would fall foul to this fire.  Yet early evening it licked at its walls, then melted its roof tiles, within hours it was nothing more than a ruin.

The fire was on a direct course for the Tower of London, with its large stores of gunpowder.  The garrison knew what would happen if the fire reached the gunpowder.  So they created their own firebreak against the oncoming fire by blowing up houses on a large scale in the vicinity to halt the advance of the fire.  By Wednesday 5th September the firebreak began to take effect as the wind died down.

The Great Fire of London saw the destruction of 13,500 houses, 87 churches, The Royal Exchange, St.Pauls Cathedral, Bridewell Palace, City Prisons and the list goes on.  London was destroyed by natural causes, but loss of life was few, according to the records only sixteen died.

King Charles II appointed six commissioners to redesign the city, built out of brick with larger roadways.  Sir Christopher Wren was appointed to design and oversee the construction of 50 churches and St.Paul’s Cathedral, which must be considered one of his highest achievements.

The Great Plague of 1665, ran rampant across the City of London, and is responsible for the deaths of some 200,000 souls.  In 1666 fire ravaged London, destroying much of its unsanitary houses, rats, fleas and diseases.

London was rebuilt, and so a new era began in its life.

Britain: The Great Storm of 1703

Daniel Defoe put pen to paper, telling of the Great Storm of 1703, considered the worst to strike British shores.  “No pen could describe it, nor tongue express it, nor thought conceive it.

On Friday the 26th November, as the wind battered Cornwall’s Lizard Peninsula, the people believed the great “Day of Judgement” was coming.

Henry Winstanley built a 120-foot lighthouse at Eddystone, believing it to be indestructible, how wrong he was, as he was killed as a sixty-foot wave pounded the lighthouse.

London would suffer much damage, lead on the roof of Westminster Abbey was rolled up like parchment and blown clear of the building.

Queen Anne told her subjects, that the storm was their fault, for being sinful.  On the 19th January 1704, thousands crammed into the churches to thank God for their deliverance, and thanking him for his infinite mercy.

Husband of Queen Anne: George of Denmark…

George was born on the 2nd April 1653, in Copenhagen, to parents King Frederick III of Denmark and Sophie Amelie of Brunswick-Lueneburg.  He was well educated and received military training, before undertaking a tour of Europe, spending time in France and England in 1668-69.

In 1670, his father died, and the Danish throne went to his oldest brother; Christian.

In 1674, King Louis XIV of France, proposed him as an ideal candidate for the position, King of Poland.  George refused on the grounds, he was not prepared to surrender his Lutheran faith, and fortunately Catholic Poland would not accept a Protestant Monarch.

King Charles II of England was on the lookout for a husband, for Princess Anne, the daughter of James, the Duke of York, who would become King James II.

Prince George, a known Protestant, would be an acceptable candidate for the post.

Prince George and Princess Anne were married on the 28th July 1683 in the Chapel Royal at St.James Palace, London.

Anne bore George seventeen children, sadly only one survived infancy, but died before reaching twelve.

King Charles II died on the 6th February 1685, and James the Duke of York became King James II of England.  Prince George, husband to the King’s daughter, received a position in the Privy Council, and was allowed to attend Cabinet meetings, but he had no power.

On the 5th November 1688, William of Orange invaded Britain, which ultimately deposed King James II, and he was forced into exile, in France.

In 1689, Prince and Princess of Orange became King William III and Queen Mary II, were declared joint monarchs of England, with Princess Anne, as heiress presumptive.

In April of 1689, Prince George became the Duke of Cumberland, Earl of Kendal and Baron of Okingham, titles created by England’s new monarchs, and on the 20th April, took his seat in the House of Lords.

George was refused admission to the army and navy by William III.

Queen Mary died of smallpox in 1694, making Anne, heiress apparent.

An “Act of Settlement” was passed by Parliament in 1701, which meant, following William and Mary’s death, the English throne would pass to Princess Anne, and afterwards to protestant cousins; House of Hanover.

In 1702, William III died, and Princess Anne, became Queen Anne of England, the last of the Stuarts.

On the 17th April 1702, Queen Anne appointed Prince George Generalissimo of all military forces and Lord High admiral.

George was content taking second place to his wife and Queen, offering advice, if and when needed.

During Anne’s reign as Queen, her and George spent the winters at Kensington and St.James Palaces, and the summers at Windsor Castle and Hampton Court Palace.

Prince George never became a member of the Church of England, in all the years they were married, he remained till death a Lutheran, and he had his own personal chapel.

In the early part of 1706, George was taken ill; blood in his sputum.  His health deteriorated, as he suffered from bad bouts of asthma.  On the 28th October 1708, Prince George died at Kensington Palace, and was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Stuart Queen: Anne…

Anne Stuart was born on the 6th February 1665 at St.James Palace, London, to parents James II and Anne Hyde, and in 1683 married Prince George of Denmark.

When King William III died on the 8th March 1702, Anne Stuart ascended to the English throne, and was crowned Queen Anne of England on the 23rd April 1702 at Westminster Abbey.

In 1702, England declares war on France. 

In 1704, English, Bavarian and Austrian troops commanded by the Duke of Marlborough, defeat the French at the “Battle of Blenheim,” putting a stop to a possible invasion of Austria.

The British empire capture Gibraltar from Spain.

In 1706, the Duke of Marlborough defeats the French at the “Battle of Ramilies,” and in turn expelled the French from the Netherlands.

In 1707, the “Act of Union” unites England and Scotland, with the seat of government for both countries, firmly set in London.

In 1708, James Edward Stuart, arrived in Scotland, making a failed attempt at seizing the throne.

In 1709, the Duke of Marlborough’s forces defeat the French at the “battle of Malplaquet.”

In 1713, the “Treaty of Utrecht,” is signed between Britain and France, bring an end to the war.

Queen Anne died on the 1st August 1714 at Kensington Palace, London and was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Stuart King and Queen: William III – Mary II

William Henry Stuart was born on the 14th November 1650 in the Hague, Netherlands to parents William II of Orange and Mary Stuart.

Mary was born on the 30th April 1662 at St.James Palace, London to parents James II and Anne Hyde.

William Henry Stuart (William III of Orange) married Mary II in 1677.

In 1689 Parliament declared to England, that King James II had abdicated his position as King of England.  His daughter Mary and husband William of Orange were crowned; King William III and Queen Mary II of England, on the 11th April 1689 at Westminster Abbey.

In 1689, a “Declaration of Rights,” had been drawn up by Parliament, thus limiting the monarch’s power, and control of legislation, and taxes came under Parliament.

Jacobite Hylanders rose up in support of James II, victorious at “Killiekrankie,” but defeated in 1689 at “Dunkelds.”

James II, former King of England, attempted to regain his throne, when he was defeated at the “Battle of Boyne,” in 1690.

An Anglo-Dutch naval force, is defeated by the French navy at Beachy Head in 1690.

In 1691, William offer the Scottish Highlanders, a pardon for their part in the Jacobite uprising, in return they sign an allegiance to him.

In 1692, the Campbells kill the MacDonalds at Glencoe, for refusing to sign the oath of allegiance.

Queen Mary II dies of smallpox in 1694, and was buried at Westminster Abbey.

In 1697, “Peace of Ryswick,” becomes a turning point, and marks the end of the war with France.

In 1701 an “Act of Settlement” comes into force establishing Hanoverian and Protestant successions to the English throne.

William forms alliances between England, Holland and Austria, preventing a union of French and Spanish crowns in 1701.

King William III dies on the 8th March 1702 at Kensington Palace from pneumonia following a broken collar bone, after falling from his horse, and is buried in Westminster Abbey.

2nd Wife of King James II: Mary of Modena

Mary Beatrice d’Este was born on the 5th October 1658 at the Ducal Palace of Modena in Italy, to parents Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena and Laura Martinozzi.  Mary Beatrice; a descendant of the Bourbon royal family of France and the Medici family of Italy.

In 1669, James (James II), Duke of York, a Roman Catholic and younger brother to King Charles II and heir to the English throne, proposed marriage.

On the 30th September 1673 Mary Beatrice and James, Duke of York, were married by proxy in Modena, and married in person on the 23rd November 1673, and had two children who survived infancy; James and Louise Maria.

In 1688, the Popish Plot, headed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, was aimed at excluding the Catholic, Duke of York, his rightful successor to the English throne.

James and Mary Beatrice were forced into exile in Brussels.  Returning when Charles II was taken ill, fearing James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of Charles II, would seize the throne… fortunately Charles recovered.

James and Mary, were sent to Edinburgh by Charles, and resided at Holyrood House.

In 1683, the Rye House Plot, was aimed at the assassination of King Charles II and his brother James, and Monmouth would become Lord Protector of England.

In 1684, James was re-admitted to the Privy Council.

King Charles II died on the 6th February 1685, and Charles and Mary were crowned on the 23rd April.

On the 19th July 1687, Mary’s mother, Laura the Duchess of Modena died.

Catherine Sedley, one time mistress of James II, and mother to two of his illegitimate children, had an affair tolerated by Mary.  However, James went one step too far, making her the Countess of Dorchester.

Mary threatened to renounce her throne, and go into a convent, unless he rid himself of her.  Mary won, Catherine Sedley was banished to Ireland, for the duration of her life, with a comfortable pension.

William of Orange, supported by Protestants in England, landed at Torbay in Devon on the 5th November 1688.  Plymouth fell to William, and many switched allegiance from James to William.

With his Queen in France, James chose to leave his throne, he had abdicated, reaching France on Christmas Day 1688.

William and Mary accepted the English throne in 1689.

James II, sought to recover the English throne, but after being defeated at the “Battle of the Boyne,” in Ireland in 1690, accepted the inevitable.

On the 6th September 1701, James, the former King James II of England died, and was buried at St.Germaine.

Mary received a request from Scotland, to surrender the custody of her son; James Francis Edward over to them, and agree to his conversion to Protestantism.  The first step in him succeeding to the English throne on William III’s death.

William III died in March 1702, and Lord Lovat begged Mary to release her son, and come to Scotland.  A rising had been planned of 15,000 soldiers, seizing the throne for James Francis Edward.  Mary refused… the uprising never got started.

Mary entered the Convent of the Visitations, Chaillot, on the outskirts of Paris, where she would live out the rest of her days, in near poverty.

On the 7th May 1718, she passed away, and was buried at Chaillot.  Her tomb was destroyed, during the French Revolution.

1st Wife of King James II: Anne Hyde

Anne Hyde was born on the 12th March 1637, at Cranbourne Lodge, to parents Edward Hyde, the Earl of Clarendon and Frances Aylesbury.

In 1649, the family fled England, after the execution of King Charles I, and settled in the Netherlands.

Anne, became lady-in-waiting to Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange, and attracted the attention of James, the Duke of York.  She fell head over heels in love with James, got pregnant, and James felt it was his duty to marry her, much to the annoyance of his mother; Henrietta Maria.  For she considered her new daughter-in-law, a commoner, and not of Royal blood.

James, the Duke of York and Anne Hyde were married on the 3rd September 1600, in a private ceremony held at Worcester House in London.

Anne bore James two children, who survived infancy: Mary and Anne, who would take their place in later years as; Queen Mary II and Queen Anne.

The marriage would prove, not to be a happy one, for Anne had to share her affections for James, with his many mistresses.

Anne, an Anglican at the time of her marriage, was drawn to Catholicism, as James had, during their time abroad.  So it was not surprising, they eventually converted.

Anne Hyde died on the 31st March 1671, following fifteen months of illness, and died from suspected breast cancer.  She was buried in the vault, of Mary, Queen of Scots, in Henry VII’s Chapel at Westminster Abbey.

Stuart King: James II

James II was born on the 14th October 1633 at St.James Palace to parents Charles I and Henrietta.  He grew up in exile, first in Holland then in France, and served in the French and Spanish forces.

Following Cromwell’s death, and the restoration on the monarchy, when his brother had taken his rightful place as King of England, James returned to England, and was appointed by his brother; King Charles II as Lord High Admiral, and commanded the Royal Navy during the Anglo-Dutch conflict.

In 1660 James married Anne Hyde, she was not of Royal Blood, a commoner, the daughter of the King’s chief minister; Edward Hyde.  She bore him only two children, who survived infancy; Mary who became Queen Mary II and Anne, who became Queen Anne.

In 1670, James converted to Catholicism.

His first wife, Anne died in 1671, and he married Mary of Modena, a fifteen-year-old Italian Catholic princess.  She bore him two children who survived infancy; James and Louise Maria.

In 1673, Parliament not wanting a Catholic successor to the English throne passed the “Test Act” which excluded Catholics from political office.

In 1679, an Exclusion Bill was introduced into Parliament, adding James II, as a practising Catholic, to those excluded from holding political office… Parliament did not want a Catholic King.

Parliament put forward, that James Scott the Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II, should be next in line to the throne instead of James, Charles II replied by dissolving Parliament.

King Charles II died on the 6th February 1685, and James ascended to the English throne, and crowned King James II of England on the 23rd April at Westminster Abbey.

Within months of being crowned King, James faced rebellions; The Earl of Argyll, in Scotland and the Duke of Monmouth at the “Battle of Sedgemoor.”  Argyll was executed for his part, and in 1686, Monmouth along with many of his rebels were hanged.

In 1688, James believed in his “Divine Right as King” and believed he had absolute power over his kingdom.  He issued the “Declaration of Indulgence,” thus suspending all laws against Catholic’s and repealed the “Test Act.”  He went further still, by promoting Catholic supporters within Parliament.

His daughter Mary married William of Orange of the Netherlands.  William of Orange, son-in-law to James II was invited to England by leading statesman to restore English liberties; Protestantism and Democracy.

William of Orange landed at Torbay on the 5th November 1688, in 463 ships with no opposition from the English Royal Navy.  His army of 14,000 men grew to 20,000 men by the time they reached London.

Anne, the daughter of King James II, defected to William of Orange.

James tossed the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames… he had abdicated his position as England’s King, and went into exile in France.

King William III and Queen Mary II, the daughter of James II were crowned King and Queen of England in 1689.

James attempted to regain his throne, landing in Ireland, but was defeated at the “Battle of Boyne,” in 1690.

James II lived the rest of his life in exile, until he died on the 6th September 1701, at St.Germain-en-laye in France, and buried at the Chateau de Saint Germain-en-laye.

England’s Commonwealth: Richard Cromwell

On the 4th October 1626, Richard Cromwell was born in Huntingdon to parents Oliver and Elizabeth Cromwell.

He served in the Parliamentary army during the First Civil War, but with the death of his older brother; Oliver in 1644, his military career ended.  Richard was now the eldest son and heir of Oliver Cromwell.

In May of 1649, Richard married Dorothy, the daughter of Richard Mayor of Hursley in Hampshire.  Richard and Dorothy lived on the Mayor’s estate, where his wife bore him nine children, of which only four survived to reach adulthood.  Richard enjoyed his new life, amongst the local gentry, and devoted himself to hunting.  He became the local magistrate, and played a minor role in local government.

His new lifestyle came at a price, his love of good living, led to him falling into debt, as he exceeded his allowance, again and again.

In 1653, when Richard was 27, his father Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth.  Richard’s status changed, as he was addressed as “Lord Richard,” son of the protector.

In September of 1654, Richard was elected as MP for Hampshire in the First Protectorate Parliament, and in November of 1655 appointed to the Committee for Trade and Navigation.

In the Second Protectorate Parliament (1656-1658) was elected as MP for Cambridge University, and in July of 1657 succeeded his father as Chancellor of Oxford University.

The “Humble Petition and Advice” constitution of 1657, required Oliver Cromwell to name his successor as Lord Protector.

Oliver brought his son; Richard into the public eye, as his duly selected successor, and so it was father and son were often seen together at many public ceremonies and meetings.

Richard was appointed to the Upper House of Parliament in 1657, and Council of State.  In January of 1658, appointed to the post of honorary colonel in the cavalry, and in the May, a warship was named in his honour; “Richard.”

On the 3rd September 1658, Oliver Cromwell dies, and his position as Lord Protector passes to his son Richard Cromwell.

A group of military officers petitioned that the new commander who replaces Oliver Cromwell, should be a military man, one who had, won the trust of his army, riding side by side in battle.

Richard had inherited a 13-man Council of State, consisting of Charles Fleetwood John Disbrowe’s group representing the army and John Thurloe for the civilian group.

Without Oliver Cromwell, the head of England’s Republic, England’s Commonwealth, the country gradually slipped into chaos, with his son Richard Cromwell as Lord Protector.

Richard was unpopular, he was no Oliver, and the regime was heavily in debt, and a gulf had opened between Army and Parliament.

Richard appointed Charles Fleetwood to Lieutenant-general, whilst he retained the position of Supreme Commander.  He appointed his brother, Henry Cromwell as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, giving him full authority over the army.

In January of 1659, Richard summoned Parliament, to vote on higher taxation to support the army at its current size.  Parliament rejected the request, and put forward a counter proposal, to reduce the size of the army, and they would have tighter control on it.  Charles Fleetwood and John Disbrowe called upon Richard to firmly reject the suggestion.

Richard refused, and soon found out who the army obeyed, for when he summoned the army in London, to rally round him at Whitehall, they unanimously followed their officer’s, amassing at St.James’s.

On the 21st April, Major-general Disbrowe confronted Richard at Whitehall and insisted he dissolve Parliament.  Richard’s hands were tied, he had no alternative, and so it was in the early hours of the 22nd April that Parliament was dissolved, and the Council of Officer’s controlled the government.

Richard was placed under house arrest at Whitehall Palace.  The remaining members of the old Rump Parliament were recalled, and on the 14th May the House of Commons formally destroyed Richards seal, as Lord Protector.

Parliament treated him with honour, paying off his debts, granting him a pension, upon his resignation as Lord Protector in 1659.

In the summer of 1660, Richard left his family and fled into exile on the continent until 1680, when he returned, living in Cheshunt, Herfordshire under the assumed name of John Clarke until his death in 1712.