Lancastrian King: Henry VI…

Henry was born on the 6th December 1421 at Windsor Castle, to parents Henry V and Catherine of Valois.  He ascended to the English throne, on the 1st September 1422, and was crowned King Henry VI of England on the 6th November 1429 at Westminster Abbey.

John, the Duke of Bedford was appointed Regent of France, and Humphrey the Duke of Gloucester as Regent of England.  As Henry VI, was only ten months old when he succeeded his father, to the English throne.

On the 28th September 1423, England’s nobles swore allegiance, to the infant Henry VI.

On the 29th April 1429, English forces at the Siege of Orleans, came face to face with the French army, being led into battle by a young peasant girl; Joan of Arc.  The start of her campaign to expel the English from France.

On the 6th November 1429, Henry was crowned King Henry VI of England at Westminster Abbey.

On the 23rd May 1430, Joan of Arc was thrown from her horse at Compiegne, and captured by English forces.  She was taken to Bouvreuil Castle at Rouen, and put on trial for witchcraft.

On the 30th May, aged nineteen, was burned at the stake in Rouen’s market place.

On the 16th December 1431, Henry became King of France at a service held at the Notre Dame in Paris.  Then in 1437, he took over power of England.

King Henry VI of England married Margaret of Anjou on the 23rd April 1445 at Titchfield in Hampshire.  She bore him one son, Edward of Westminster, the Prince of Wales on the 13th October 1453.

In 1450, England lost the lands of the Duchy of Aquitaine and Normandy, thus England’s remaining territory in France was Calais.

In 1453 King Henry VI had a mental breakdown, and Richard the Duke of York became his Protector.

In 1454 Edward of Westminster, was invested as the Prince of Wales.

The houses of York and Lancaster, started a feud in 1453, which was destined to last for years.  In 1454, Richard the Duke of York is named Regent and Protector of the realm, and starts making claims towards the throne.

Henry VI recovers from his illness, and it is left to his wife to dismiss Richard, the Duke of York from court.  The Lancastrians and Margaret of Anjou had regained power of England.

The Duke of York raises an army in 1455 and defeats the Kings Lancastrian army at the “Battle of St.Albans” on the 22nd May.

The Civil War in England had started, better known as the “Wars of the Roses.”

The Duke of Somerset, the Lancastrian leader is killed in battle as the Duke of York takes over England’s Government.  Over the next five years; England is riddled with constant clashes between the Yorkists and Lancastrians.

On the 10th July 1460, Yorkist army led by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick clash with Lancastrian forces.  King Henry VI is captured, Margaret escapes to Scotland and Richard, the Duke of York is England’s Protector once again.

In October 1460, the “Act of Accord” Richard, the Duke of York is named successor to the English throne, thus disinheriting Henry’s son; Prince Edward.

Richard, the Duke of York is killed at the “Battle of Wakefield” by Lancastrian forces, and so it was, his son pressed home his claim for the English throne.

Queen Margaret and her Lancastrian army heads south, defeats the Earl of Warwick at St.Albans, and releases Henry VI.

Edward of York defeats Margaret’s Lancastrian forces on the 29th March 1461 at the “Battle of Towton,” where 28,000 troops lost their lives.

Henry VI and Margaret flee to Scotland, as Edward declares himself King Edward IV.

In 1470 a rebellion led by the Earl of Warwick, and the Duke of Clarence, failed forcing them to take refuge in France and make an alliance with Margaret of Anjou… The French supported an English invasion, led by Margaret, Warwick and Clarence.

King Edward IV fled as news reached him that the Duke of Clarence, had changed sides supporting the Lancastrians.

On the 3rd October 1470, King Henry VI was reinstated as England’s King.

In December 1470, Prince Edward marries Anne Neville, daughter of the Earl of Warwick.

In March of 1471, King Edward IV, and his invasion force land in England.

On the 14th April 1471 at the “Battle of Barnet” King Edward IV is triumphant, and King Henry VI is imprisoned in the Tower of London.

On the 4th May 1471, the Lancastrian line is all but destroyed, as Edward, the Prince of Wales is killed in the “Battle of Tewkesbury.”  Queen Margaret and her daughter-in-law Anne Neville are taken prisoner.

On the 22nd May 1471, King Henry VI prisoner at the Tower of London is murdered, stabbed to death… Here ended the Lancastrian line…  His final resting place; St.George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Lancastrian King: Henry V

Henry was born on the 9th August 1387, at Monmouth Castle, to parents Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.

King Henry IV died on the 20th March 1413, and travelled by water from Westminster to Faversham, then by land to Canterbury, to be interred by the shrine of St.Thomas.

On the 9th April 1413, Henry (Prince Hal) was crowned King Henry V of England at Westminster Abbey.

The first battle of his reign was in 1414, with Sir John Oldcastle and Sir John Acton, known heretics.  Along with their band of followers, they made war against the Church, Priests, King and Kingdom.  The rebels were seized close to Westminster, and crucified, as for their leaders they underwent days of torture, until death was a blessing.  King Henry V had achieved victory against these heretics for Church, Priests and their faith.

On the 14th August 1415 Henry landed near Harfleur at the mouth of the Seine, where an encounter took place between English and French troops, where England was the victor.

On the 25th August 1415, one of the most famous battles took place, between the English and the French: the “Battle of Agincourt,” where the English became victorious over the French forces, thanks to the English longbow.

Three French Dukes, nine counts, ninety lords and some 5,000 knights are believed to have lost their lives, whilst English losses only accounted for one earl, seven knights and five-hundred troops.

Agincourt, the battle fought on French soil, wiped out at least half a generation of French nobility.  Henry had demoralised the French, and had laid the path for subsequent triumphs in France…

Did you know?  Henry had little or no regard for the men who had fought at his side in battle.  The bodies of the English warriors, who died at Agincourt, were not given a Christian burial as you would expect, but heaped in a barn and burnt.

In 1420, King Henry V of England was officially recognised as heir to the French throne as agreed by the “Treaty of Troyes.”  This agreement was further agreed by the proposed marriage of Henry V to Catherine of Valois, daughter of King Charles VI.

The Treaty of Troyes placed Henry in control of France for the  remainder of Charles VI’s life and promised that the English line would succeed to the French throne.   

On the 2nd June 1420, King Henry V married Catherine of Valois at Troyes Cathedral, cementing the “Treaty of Troyes.”

On the 6th December 1421, Catherine bore Henry one child; Henry, known as Henry of Windsor… who would later become King Henry VI of England and France.

Shortly before Henry V died, he named his brother, John the Duke of Bedford as Regent of France in the name of Henry VI his son, who was only a few months old.

On the 31st August 1422, King Henry V died of dysentery at Bois de Vincennes.

John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley escorted the body of Henry V back to England and bore the royal standard at his funeral.

King Henry V of England was buried in Westminster Abbey on the 7th November 1422.

Lancastrian King: Henry IV

Henry was born on the 3rd April 1367, at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, to parents John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III and Blanche of Lancaster.

Henry’s cousin, King Richard II, son of Edward the Black Prince, grandson of Edward III, became King of England in 1377, aged ten.

In 1380, Henry married Mary de Bohun and was blessed with four sons and two daughters: 

Henry, (Prince Hal) the Duke of Monmouth, who became Henry V, John the Duke of Bedford, Thomas the Duke of Clarence, Humphrey the Duke of Gloucester, Blanche of England and Philippa of England.

Henry joins the “Lords Appellants,” in 1386 who outlawed many of Richard’s closest associates, thus forcing the King to accept their counsel.  By 1388, many of Richard’s friends and adviser’s had either been executed or exiled.

Richard would be looking for revenge, against the members of the Lords Appellants, waiting for his chance, to take his revenge.

In 1389, Richard having reached the age of twenty-two, declared he be of age to run his kingdom, his people without counsel.

In 1390, Henry joined the Teutonic Knights, they who modelled themselves on the Knights Templar.  They had been created to provide hospitals and aid to pilgrims in the Holy Land.

In 1392-93, he went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, before returning to the political court of King Richard II.

Mary de Bohun, his wife died in 1394.

In 1398, one Henry Bolingbroke, questioned Richard’s rule and Thomas de Mowbray, the 1st Duke of Norfolk, interpreted it as treason.  A duel of honour was to take place at Gosford Green in Coventry.  Richard stepped in, stopping the duel, banishing Henry Bolingbroke to France for ten years, and seizing his lands, as for Thomas de Mowbray, he was exiled for life.

In 1398, Richard took his revenge by exiling Henry.  When Henry’s father, John of Gaunt died in 1399, Richard seized the family estates … These actions horrified many of Richard’s people, in his government.

Henry had been deprived of his inheritance, and Richard had thrown down the gauntlet; if you want your inheritance, you would have to come before me, and ask for your inheritance.

Henry returned to England with Thomas Arundel, the former Archbishop of Canterbury, exiled from England, for his involvement with the Lords Appellant, whilst Richard was in Ireland.

Henry Bolingbroke, landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire, with an army of French troops, a gift of the French King.

King Richard II, was captured by the Earl of Northumberland, and handed over to Henry.  Richard confessed before Parliament, of being unworthy to reign as England’s King, and surrendered his crown in August 1399 to Henry Bolingbroke.

Henry IV ascended to the English throne on the 30th September 1399, and was crowned King of England on the 13th October at Westminster Abbey.

Henry’s first issue to be dealt with, as the new reigning monarch; what was to become of the now deposed Richard II.  He was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire, and died on the 14th February 1400 of starvation, and buried at Westminster Abbey.

Henry had to quash the Welsh rebellion in 1400, and his success was primarily achieved by his eldest son; Henry of Monmouth.

On the 7th February 1403, King Henry IV married Joanna of Navarre; she bore him no children.

On the 21st July 1403, at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Henry quashed the rebellion of Henry Percy, the 1st Earl of Northumberland.

In 1405, Henry IV was struck down by an illness, and historians believe it could have been leprosy.  His eldest son became Regent and effectively ruled England in his name in 1410.

As Henry’s health began to deteriorate, a power struggle had evolved between Thomas Arundel, Henry’s half brothers and his son, Prince Henry.

The struggle led to arguments about France, and the Civil War.  Prince Henry wanted war with France, whilst his father favoured on the side of peace.

In 1411, Henry resumed his position as England’s King, until he was taken ill once again.  His eldest son Henry, stepped into the breach once again in 1413.

King Henry IV died on the 20th March 1413 in Westminster, and was buried at Canterbury Cathedral.