Roman Gladiator

Laid out before me
a fallen gladiator lies,
he leans upon his hand
still grasping at his sword.

He consents to death
as the crowd calls for his blood,
the Emperor, acknowledges the crowd
and the signal is given.

I thrust my sword
into his open wound,
blood gushes from his wound
seeping into the ground.

The arena swirls around him
his life, taken from him,
brutally slain, on Emperor’s orders
for the amusement of the crowd.

Roman History: St.George

George was born in Cappadocia, which today is part of Turkey, to Christian parents, during the 3rd century.

His mother was a native of Palestine, and upon George’s father’s death, they left Cappadocia, returning to her home of Palestine.

George became a soldier in the Roman army, and rose to the rank of Tribune.

Emperor Diocletian (245-313AD), began a campaign of persecution against the Christians. George tore up the Emperor’s orders and resigned his military post in 303AD out of protest of these actions.

George was imprisoned and tortured, for his actions, but never would he deny his faith. The Emperor had him dragged through the streets of Diospolis (now known as Lydda), in Palestine. The Emperor gave George a chance. His life would be spared, if he would offer sacrifice to the Roman gods. The people gathered and George prayed to his Christian God, so outraging the Emperor… He was beheaded for his contempt.

Emperor Diocletian wife became a Christian, after witnessing George’s resilience, and she too was executed for her faith.

Pope Gelasius stated in 494AD about George, he was to be numbered among those saints whose names are justly re-veered among men, but whose deeds are only known to God.

George became Saint George on 23rd April 1222.

History of Early Egypt

By 3200BC the two kingdoms had appeared along the River Nile; the Upper and Lower Kingdoms.

In 3100BC King Menes united Egypt, making Memphis his capital and so the Old Dynastic period began.

Around 2575BC, a new period began, the Pharaonic period, which was broken down into three time periods.  The Old Kingdom (2575-2134), the Middle Kingdom (2040-1650) and the New Kingdom (1570-1070).  In the Old Kingdom Pharaohs ruled with absolute power as God-kings, and had command over their priests, nobles and civil-servants.  Most Egyptians were peasants, they were used by the pharaohs, in the building of pyramids etc.  Around that time Khufu’s Great Pyramid at Giza was constructed in 2500BC.

Sometime around 2134, the Old Kingdom ended in revolution, and thereafter, the land was plunged into a century of chaos, and known as the First Intermediate Period.  During this time political authority was in disarray among its local monarchs,

Ancient Egypt: Middle & New Kingdom

The year is 2040BC and Ancient Egypt’s Middle Kingdom witnessed Mentuhotep II restore order to the region and establish a new capital at Thebes.  The next four centuries saw pharaohs reign as god-kings as Egypt expanded its land borders southwards, taking in Nubia and Kush.

The 17th century invaders, the Hyksos of Western Asia drove iron chariots and won control of the Nile Delta.  Disorder ensued during the Second Intermediate Period.

Ahmose I of Thebes ejected the Hyksos, and the New Kingdom, and went on to consolidate his royal power in the rebuilding of the state bureaucracy, keeping a standing army, and declaring the state religion be; Temple of Amon.

Later Pharaoh’s which also included the like of Tutankhamun and Ramses the Great had to face a land of economic decline, religious unrest, political intrigue and invasion by the Hittites and Sea Peoples.  By the year 1070, the New Kingdom of the Egyptian Empire, had indeed crumbled.

Roman Gladiator

Laid out before me
a fallen gladiator lies,
he leans upon his hand
still grasping at his sword.

He consents to death
as the crowd calls for his blood,
the Emperor, acknowledges the crowd
and the signal is given.

I thrust my sword
into his open wound,
blood gushes from his wound
seeping into the ground.

The arena swirls around him
his life, taken from him,
brutally slain, on Emperor’s orders
for the amusement of the crowd.

Poem written, based on the film Gladiator (2000) featuring Russell Crowe

The Epic of Gilgamesh

The oldest known epic tale in the world was written some 1500 years before Homer the Greek Poet wrote the Illiad.  “The Epic of Gilgamesh” tells us of the Sumerian Gilgamesh, hero king of Uruk, and his adventures.  The epic story was written in cuneiform upon twelve clay tablets, and were discovered by Hormuzd Rassam in 1853, within the ruins of Ashurbanipal library in Nineveh, and it is believed to date around 1300-1000BC.

Gilgamesh the great hero of the Sumerian people; King Uruk dates back to 2100 BC.  His life is full of madness, emotion and anxiety.  The story, the legend of his life has been pieced together from a collection of clay tablets.

At the start, the young king is bursting with energy, a soldier a warrior at heart, and explorer.  His strength knows no limits, he be a great lover, and no virgin was safe.  He desperately longed for a friend, someone who would be his equal, in strength.

The Gods hearing his desire created Enkidu, with the strength of Gilgamesh, wild with matted hair which covered his whole body.  He lived amongst wild animals, ate as they did and drank from the streams.  News reached Gilgamesh from a hunter, who had come face to face with this wild and strange creature of the forest.

Gilgamesh knew this was the friend he so desired, one with a strength to match his own.  He hatched a plan; one of the temple prostitutes would enter the woods naked, seek out the said creature and tame him.

Gilgamesh and Endiku met in the marketplace at Uruk, and there was a wrestling match of champions, testing out each other’s strength.  People crowded round to watch as Gilgamesh proved triumphant, flinging his opponent upon his back.  From that time a friendship was formed, as these two warriors, hunted panthers and guardians of the cedar forest.  They slew the Bull of Heaven, and Gilgamesh had the horns mounted upon the walls of his bed chamber.

Enkidu fell sick as Gilgamesh sat by his death bed for six days and seven nights.  Finally, death came, as a worm fell out of Enkidu’s nose.  Gilgamesh roared like a wild animal, in response, and roamed the forests, weeping, in fear of his own death.  Gilgamesh ended up at the tavern at the end of the world, and sought out Ziusudra, a demi-god who had never really died.

Gilgamesh constructed a boat complete with punting poles topped with bitumen, and headed across the water to meet with the seer; Ziusudra.  The Seer offered him eternal youth.  All he had to do was obtain a plant of prickly design from the seas’ bottom.  Gilgamesh tied stones to his feet and the weight would pull him down, collected the plant of eternal youth, cut himself free of the stones and his body rose to the surface in triumph.

Whilst he rested upon the shore from his exertions, a snake smelled the plant and stole it from him.

Gilgamesh was as good as dead.

Ancient Greece Timeline

2900-2000 BC: The Bronze Age, when early Aegean cultures started to emerge.

2500 BC: The Great Minoan civilization.

1200 BC: The Trojan War and the destruction of Troy.

1050-750 BC: The Dark Ages of Greece and the fall of the Mycenean culture.

850-700 BC: The development of the first Greek alphabet.

776 BC: The year when the first Olympic Games are staged.

750-700 BC: Homer writes the Iliad and the Odyssey.

730-710 BC: The first Messenian War and the Spartans conquer southwest Peloponnesia.

650 BC: The rise of the Greek tyrants.

621 BC: Draco’s code of law is introduced.

600 BC: Greek coinage is introduced.

500-323 BC: A time known as the Greek Classical period.

505 BC: Cleisthenes introduces democracy in Athens.

490 BC: Greek/Persian wars led by Xerxes.

468 BC: Sophocles writes his first tragedy.

461-446 BC: The Peloponnesian Wars begin between Sparta and Athens.

449-432 BC: Construction of the Parthenon and the Acropolis in Athens.

441 BC: Euripides pens his first tragedy.

443-429 BC: Pericles leads Athens.

431 BC: Second Peloponnesian War between Sparta and Athens.

430 BC: Outbreak of the Bubonic Plague strikes Athens.

420-410 BC: Construction of the Temple of Athena.

399 BC: Socrates the Greek Philosopher is executed.

386 BC: Plato founds the academy.

384 BC: Aristotle is born.

359 BC: Philip II becomes King of the Greeks.

356 BC: Alexander the Great, son of King Philip II is born.

333 BC: Alexander the Great defeats the Persians at Issus and is given Egypt by the Persian Satrap where he builds a capital at Alexandria and founds the great library.

323 BC: Alexander the Great, a mighty warrior dies at Babylon.

323-321 BC: The Hellenistic Period.

224 BC: Earthquake destroys the Colossus of Rhodes.

200-196 BC: The first Roman victory over Greece.

197 BC: King Philip V of Greece loses to Roman forces at Kynoskephalai.

86 BC: Sulla the Roman General captures Athens.

33 AD: Crucifixion of Jesus and the origin of Christianity.

267 AD: The Goths sack Athens, Sparta and Corinth.

286 AD: The Roman Emperor Diocletian divides the Roman Empire in two, thus forming modern Greece (Byzantine Empire).

641 AD: Greece is over run by the Slavs.

Roman Emperor: Augustus (27BC-AD14)

The future emperor Augustus was born into an equestrian family as Gaius Octavius at Rome on 23 September 63 BC. His father, Gaius Octavius, was the first in the family to become a senator, but died when Octavian was only four. It was his mother who had the more distinguished connection. She was the daughter of Julia, sister to Julius Caesar.

As for his character it is said that he was cruel when young, but became mild later on. This, however, might just be because, as his position became more secure, the need for brutality lessened. For he was still prepared to be ruthless when necessary. He was tolerant of criticism, possessed a good sense of humour, and had a particular fondness for playing dice, but often provided his guests with money to place bets.

Although unfaithful to his wife Livia Drusilla, he remained deeply devoted to her. His public moral attitudes were strict (he had been appointed pontifex (priest) at the age of fifteen or sixteen) and he exiled his daughter and his grand-daughter, both named Julia, for offending against these principles.

Octavian served under Julius Caesar in the Spanish expedition of 46 BC despite his delicate health. And he was to take a senior military command in Caesar’s planned Parthian expedition of 44 BC, although at the time being only 18 years old.

But Octavian was with his friends Marcus Agrippa and Marcus Salvidienus Rufus in Apollonia in Epirus completing his academic and military studies, when news reached him of Caesar’s assassination.

At once he returned to Rome, learning on the way that Caesar had adopted him in his will. No doubt this only increased his desire to avenge Caesar’s murder.

Though when he arrived Octavian found power in the hands of Mark Antony and Aemilius Lepidus. They were urging compromise and amnesty. But Octavian refused to accept this attitude. With his determined stand he soon succeeded in winning over many of Caesar’s supporters, including some of the legions.

Though he failed to persuade Marc Antony to hand over Caesar’s assets and documents. Therefore Octavian was forced to distribute Caesar’s legacies to the Roman public from whatever funds he was able to raise himself. Such efforts to see Caesar’s will done helped raise Octavian’s standing with the Roman people considerably.

Many of the senators, too, were opposed to Antony. Octavian, appreciated as Antony’s primary rival by then, was granted the status of senator, despite not yet being twenty.

During the summer of 44 BC the senate’s leader, Cicero, delivered a series of infamous speeches against Marc Antony which came to be known as the ‘Philippics’. Cicero saw in the young Octavian a useful ally. So, when in November 44 BC Antony left Rome to take command in northern Italy, Octavian was dispatched with the senate’s blessing to make war on Antony. Marc Antony was defeated at Mutina (43 BC) and forced to retreat into Gaul.

But now it showed that Cicero had definitely lost control of the young Octavian. Had the two reigning consuls both been killed in the battle, then in August 43 BC Octavian marched on Rome and forced the senate to accept him as consul. Three months thereafter he met with Antony and Lepidus at Bologna and the three came to an agreement, the Triumvirate. This agreement between Rome’s three most powerful men completely cut off the senate from power (27 November 43 BC).

Cicero was killed in the proscriptions that followed. Brutus and Cassius, Caesar’s chief assassins, were defeated at Philippi in northern Greece.
Octavian and Marc Antony, the winners at Philippi, reached a new agreement in October 40 BC in the Treaty of Brundisium. The Roman empire was to be divided between them, Antony taking the east, Octavian the west. The third man, Lepidus, was no longer an equal partner. He therefore had to make do with the province of Africa. To further strengthen their agreeement, Antony married Octavians’ sister Octavia. But it was not to be long, before Antony abandoned her to return to his lover Cleopatra.

Meanwhile Octavian’s own standing had been heightened by the deification of Julius Caesar in early 42 BC. He was no longer to be addressed as ‘Octavian’ but insisted on being called ‘Caesar’ and he now styled himself as ‘divi filius‘ – ‘son of the divine’.

He used the following years to strengthen his hold over the western provinces. Also in this time Marcus Agrippa, Octavian’s most loyal friend, delivered Italy from the menace of the fleet of Sextus Pompeius, a son of Pompey the Great.

As Lepidus fell by the wayside during the conflict with Sextus Pompeius, this left Antony and Octavian rulers of the Roman world. Antony lived openly with Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Octavian’s apparent modesty and moral strictness contrasted strongly with Antony’s life as an oriental monarch at the lavish Egytian court. Rome’s sympathies therefore clearly lay with Octavian.

By 32 BC the agreement made at Tarentum (an extension of the Treaty of Brundisium by four years) strictly speaking had run its course and the Triumvirate ceased to be. Octavian tried to maintain the charade that he really wasn’t exercising any powers.

When Antony divorced Octavia, Octavian lashed out by reading out in public Antony’s will, which had quite illegally come into his possession. This will promised not only large inheritances to his children by Cleopatra, but it also demanded that, should he die in Italy, his body should be returned to Cleopatra in Egypt. Antony’s will was the final straw. For in all Rome’s eyes, this could never be the will of a true Roman. The senate declared war.

At Actium on the west coast of Greece on 2 September 31 BC the fateful battle took place. Once again it was Agrippa who commanded the forces on behalf of his friend Octavian and won victory.

Both Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. The vast treasures of Egypt fell to Octavian, and Egypt itself became a new Roman province.

Octavian’s next, highly questionable act was to put to death Cleopatra’s son Caesarion. Caesarion in fact was the child of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar. Octavian being the adoptive son of Caesar, he in essence ordered the death of his step-brother.

Victory of Actium had given Octavian the undivided mastery of the Roman world. But this position had once been held before by Julius Caesar. Octavian was not one to forget what fate had befallen Caesar. In order to prevent a similar demise, he needed to create a new constitution.

Hence on January 27 BC Octavian in the so-called ‘First Settlement’ went through a strangely orchestrated ceremony in which he ‘surrendered’ all his power to the senate – thus restoring the Republic. It was a purely symbolical sacrifice as he receiving most of the very same power right back again.

The entire effort were meticulously planned and overseen by his supporters and associates. Octavian received into his personal control, for ten years, the vitally important provinces of Egypt, Cyprus, Spain, Gaul and Syria. Also he was contually re-elected as consul from 31 to 23 BC.

Further he now received the name ‘Augustus’, a slightly archaic term, meaning ‘sacred’ or ‘revered’. Augustus apparently preferred the term ‘princeps‘ (first citizen) which he had been granted, though he also kept the title imperator to point out his position as military chief of staff.

Octavian’s great achievement was persuading the senate to accept him as head of the Roman state, while leaving the senators room for their political ambitions. Augustus left Rome for Gaul and Spain to put down truculent tribes in the summer of 27 BC and did not return until 24 BC. Then in 23 BC Augustus fell so seriously ill that he himself thought he was dying. This brush with death appeared to have been a further decisive moment in his life. For when he recovered, he set about once more to change the Roman constitution.
In the ‘Second Settlement’ Augustus gave up the consulship and instead was awarded tribunician powers (tribunicia potestas) for life by the senate.
Tribunician powers gave him the right to call the senate to meetings, to propose legislation in the popular assembly, and to veto any enactments. Also his command over ‘his’ provinces was renewed.

Then in 19 BC he also was granted not merely the consulship (which lasted for one year) but consular power for life. His power was thereafter unassailable. Augustus held equal power to the most powerful politicians in Rome and yet greater power still in the provinces of the empire.

On the death of Lepidus (12 BC), the failed third Triumvir, who had been shunted aside with the conciliatory position of pontifex maximus, Augustus assumed that highest of all religious positions for himself.
Perhaps the highest point came in 2 BC when the senate granted Augustus a new honour. He was henceforth pater patriae, the father of the country.

Augustus was undoubtedly one of the most talented, energetic and skillful administrators that the world has ever known. The enormously far-reaching work of reorganization and rehabilitation which he undertook in every branch of his vast empire created a new Roman peace with unprecedented prosperity.
Following in the footsteps of Julius Caesar, he won genuine popular support by hosting games, erecting new buildings, and by other measures to the general good. Augustus himself claimed to have restored 82 temples in one year alone. But further there were grand new buildings like the Theatre of Apollo, the Horologium (a giant sun dial) and the great Mausoleum of Augustus.

Augustus’ right hand man Agrippa, too, embarked on several major building projects. Among these were the Pantheon, later rebuilt by Hadrian. Agrippa also repaired the city’s water system and added two new aquaeducts, the Aqua Julia and the Aqua Virgo.

One building though is clearly lacking from Augustus’ reign – a palace. He lived in a spacious house on the Palatine Hill, evidently avoiding any symbols of monarchy. And although he did continue to style himself ‘divi filius‘, son of the deified Caesar, he clearly avoided any form of worship to his own person as was the case in the eastern world, where rulers were themselves frequently worshipped as gods.

Most of all, Augustus appeared to appreciate that his personal standing and security benefitted from governing in the public interest.

Augustus was no great military commander, but he possessed enough common sense to recognize that this was so. And so he relied on Agrippa to do his fighting for him. After Actium, Augustus only once took command of a campaign (the Cantabrian War of 26-25 BC) in Spain. But even there he eventually had to rely on one of his generals to bring the war to a successful conclusion.

Though despite his lack of military skill, Augustus achieved vast gains in imperial territory as well as in the standing of Rome.

Most important was no doubt the conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. Then in 20 BC he recovered the legionary standards captured by the Parthians at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC simply by threatening Parthia with war. Also he made the Danube the frontier in the east of Europe, after his forces fought hard campaigns conquering the Alpine tribes and occupying the Balkans.

But his attempts at making the river Elbe the empire’s northwestern frontier ended in the Varian disaster and it became clear to everyone that the Rhine was to be the future border.

Under Augustus the army was thoroughly reorganized strengthened and posted away from Italy into the provinces. He also remodelled the civil service and substantially rebuilt some parts of Rome, even appointing 3’500 firemen under a chief fire officer.

No-one could ever have foreseen the success of Augustus’ reign. His long life only went to further create him and his family as the natural rulers in the eyes of the Roman people. Although to create a dynasty proved very difficult to Augustus.

At first he clearly understood his loyal friend Agrippa to be his obvious successor. And, when he believed himself to lay dying in 23 BC, it was indeed Agrippa he handed his signet ring to. As his marriage to Livia, accept for a premature birth, produced no children, his plans of inheritence therefore envolved his daughter Julia from his previous marriage to Scribonia.
Had Julia been married to Marcellus in 25 BC (the son of Augustus’ sister Octavia), then Marcellus was also a potential heir. But Marcellus died soon after 23 BC.

So, with Agrippa his only possible successor, Augustus had his friend divorce his existing wife and marry the widowed Julia. Agrippa was 25 years older than his new wife, but their marriage brought forth three sons and two daughters. Augustus adopted the sons Gaius and Lucius as his own. Then in 12 BC Agrippa died. Augustus realized that should he himself die, the two young boys would be left without a guardian.

Therefore, Augustus turned to his wife Livia’s two adult sons from her previous marriage. He made the elder son, Tiberius, divorce his wife Vipsania and marry Julia, and become protector to the young princes.

Tiberius deeply loved his wife Vipsania and strongly resented Augustus’ demands, but the marriage went ahead on 12 February 11 BC.
As both Gaius and Lucius died early in their lives, Augustus was left with only one choice of successor – Tiberius, son of Livia. And so, on 26 June AD 4 he somewhat reluctantly adopted the equally reluctant 44 year old Tiberius, together with the 15 year old Agrippa Postumus, the youngest son of Agrippa and Julia.

Postumus though soon turned out to be a violent and thoroughly nasty individual and so was sent into exile only three years later.

During his final years Augustus withdrew more and more from public life. Intending to travel with Tiberius to Capri, and then on to Beneventum, he left Rome for the last time in AD 14.

He fell ill on the way to Capri and, after four days resting on Capri, when they crossed back to the mainland Augustus at last passed away. He died at Nola on 19 August AD 14, only one month away of his 76th birthday.

The body was taken to Rome and given a stately funeral and his ashes were then placed in his Mausoleum.

Alexander the Great…

Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great single-handedly changed the nature of the ancient world in little more than a decade.

Alexander was born in the northern Greek Kingdom of Macedonia in July 356BC.  His parents were Philip II of Macedon and his wife Olympias.  Alexander was educated by the renowned philosopher; Aristotle.  His father was assassinated in 336BC and Alexander inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom.  He quickly dealt with his enemies at home and reasserted Macedonian power within Greece.  He then set out to conquer the Persian Empire.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without suffering a single defeat.  His greatest victory was at the “Battle of Gaugamela” in what is now northern Iraq in 331 BC.  The young King of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt became the great king of Persia aged just twenty-five.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as King, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles founding over seventy cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered around two million square miles.  The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far to the east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce.  This was united by a common Greek language and culture, while the King himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Alexander was acknowledged as a military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and those of his soldiers. 

Alexander the Great died of fever in Babylon in June 323BC.

TIMELINE:

356BC       Born in Pella, the capital of Macedonia and the son of King Phillip II.

336BC       Phillip II assassinated.  Alexander becomes King of Macedonia.

334BC       Quelled rebellions at home.  Alexander crossed the Hellespont into Asia, to make war on Darius III of Persia.

333BC       The Battle of Issus.  Darius crushed, and forced to flee, abandoning his family.

332BC       Having conquered Asia Minor (Turkey) and Syria, Alexander enters Egypt and founds the city of Alexandria.

331BC       Alexander is recognised as a God in Egypt, which peacefully submits to his rule.  Turning northwards he engages Darius again at the “Battle of Gaugamela”.  Darius is defeated and killed by his own Generals.  Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, capital of the Persian Empire surrender to Alexander.

326BC       Alexander crosses the Indus river, and invades Punjab.

325BC       Alexander begins to return westward.

323BC       Alexander reaches Babylon, where he dies aged just 33 of fever.

Egypt – Cleopatra: Queen of the East

Cleopatra was the last ruling Queen of Egypt, of Macedonian descent, and daughter of Ptolemy XII.

In 51 BC, Ptolemy XII died leaving Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII whom she loathed as co-rulers of the Kingdom of Egypt.

With his father dead, the ambitious Ptolemy XIII, now co-ruler with his 17-year old sister, had no intention of sharing rule.  A feud started almost immediately between brother and sister until Ptolemy’s mercenary advisers, aided in expelling Cleopatra from the throne.

In the October of 48 BC, Cleopatra had raised an army, to take on her brother’s forces, led by Achillas…  The battle never took place, as Julius Caesar arrived in Alexandria.

Ptolemy as ruler of the kingdom, believed he was honouring Caesar, with the head of his enemy; Pompey as a gift.  Caesar was offended, he would never want this for Pompey.

Caesar was charmed by Cleopatra, and duly installed her on the throne much to her delight.  She became the true power of Egypt, supported and wooed by Caesar, and bore him a son; Caesarion.

Cleopatra, Caesar’s mistress was installed in Rome and remained there until Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC.

Cleopatra found she was no longer welcomed in Rome, following the death of her lover; Julius Caesar and returned home to Egypt.

In 41 BC Cleopatra met Marc Antony in Cilicia, and they became lovers.

Cleopatra’s status as Queen of Egypt, Queen of the East, grew and grew with Marc Antony at her side.

In Rome, Octavian (Augustus) anticipated the worst… civil war, and at the centre of it, Cleopatra and Marc Antony.  In 31 BC, his fears were realised, as conflict erupted for control of the Roman World.  Antony was financed by Cleopatra, but that was not enough support to get him victory at the “Battle of Actium.”

The Queen’s early retreat from the battle changed future events.  Cleopatra sailed to Alexandria to be joined by Antony.

Cleopatra attempted negotiation with Octavian, to salvage her kingdom and the life of her lover Marc Antony, but they came to nothing.

Cleopatra and Marc Antony committed suicide.  It was Cleopatra’s desires and ambitions which resulted in Antony falling under the spell of Cleopatra, believing anything was possible.  Augustus gained his supremacy in Rome, by the bad actions of Marc Antony.

With the death of Cleopatra, the historical family line of Ptolemies came to an end.  Egypt was seized, and joined the ranks of another Roman Province.