By 3200BC the two kingdoms had appeared along the River Nile; the Upper and Lower Kingdoms.
In 3100BC King Menes united Egypt, making Memphis his capital and so the Old Dynastic period began.
Around 2575BC, a new period began, the Pharaonic period, which was broken down into three time periods. The Old Kingdom (2575-2134), the Middle Kingdom (2040-1650) and the New Kingdom (1570-1070). In the Old Kingdom Pharaohs ruled with absolute power as God-kings, and had command over their priests, nobles and civil-servants. Most Egyptians were peasants, they were used by the pharaohs, in the building of pyramids etc. Around that time Khufu’s Great Pyramid at Giza was constructed in 2500BC.
Sometime around 2134, the Old Kingdom ended in revolution, and thereafter, the land was plunged into a century of chaos, and known as the First Intermediate Period. During this time political authority was in disarray among its local monarchs,