Hanover King: George III

George William Frederick, was born on the 4th June 1738 at Norfolk House, St.James Square, London to parents Frederick, the Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.

On the 25th October 1760, George ascended to the English throne upon the death of his grandfather; King George II.

This eligible bachelor sought out a wife and Queen, to assist him running his new kingdom.  On the 8th September 1761, King George III of England married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.  This proved to be a happy marriage, and unlike previous kings, he never took a mistress.

The couple had the following children:

George, the Prince of Wales (1762-1830)

Prince Frederick, the Duke of York and Albany (1762-1827)

Prince William, the Duke of Clarence (1765-1837)

Charlotte, Princess Royal (1766-1828)

Prince Edward, the Duke of Kent (1767-1820)

Princess Augusta Sophia (1768-1840)

Princess Elizabeth (1770-1840)

Prince Ernst, the Duke of Cumberland (1771-1851)

Prince Augustus Frederick, the Duke of Sussex (1773-1843)

Prince Adolphus, the Duke of Cambridge (1774-1850)

Princess Mary, the Duchess of Gloucester ( 1776-1857)

Princess Sophia (1777-1848)

Prince Octavius (1779-1783)

Prince Alfred (1780-1782)

Princess Amelia (1783-1810)

On the 22nd September 1761, George was crowned King George III of England along with his new wife, Queen Charlotte at Westminster Abbey.

In 1762 George purchased Bucking House, later known as Buckingham Palace, home to England’s monarchs.

The Earl of Bute is appointed Prime Minister, and in 1763 negotiates the Treaty of Paris, which ends the Seven Years War, which caused patriotic outrage amongst colonists in North America.

In 1764, George Grenville, Prime Minister of Britain introduced the Stamp Act, to raise revenue in British America.  In 1765 tax was levied on official documents, plus the introduction of tax charges, with tea carrying an exception.  The act caused much opposition in America.  This act was removed in 1766, but left much distrust in the colonies.

In 1770 George III, appointed Lord North as Prime Minister, for he was known as an effective administrator, but his government was dominated by constant disagreements with American colonists, in attempting to levy taxes upon them.

In 1772 he introduced the Royal Marriage Act; no member of the Royal family was permitted to marry, without the approval of the then Sovereign.

On the 16th December 1773, colonists protested by throwing chests of tea into Boston harbour, we know it now as the “Boston Tea Party.”

In April 1775, the relations between Britain and her American colonies would lead to the outbreak of war: The American War of Independence.

On the 4th July 1776, American Congress passed the Declaration of Independence; America’s case for freedom.

In 1781, British forces were defeated by American and French forces at the Battle of Yorktown, forcing a devastated North to resign his post as Britain’s Prime Minister.

On the 3rd September 1783, the Treaty of Paris recognises America’s Independence.

From 1783-1801 William Pitt serves as England’s new Prime Minister.

In 1788, King George III has an attack of porphyria, one of insanity, and his son, George the Prince of Wales had to step in and assist, becoming temporary Regent of England.

During his reign George suffered a number of attacks; 1788-1789-1801-1804, but the worst by far was in 1810, when he became permanently deranged.  He spent the last ten years of his life, in a fog of insanity, blind and deaf.  Death would have been a welcome release for him.

Princess Amelia daughter of King George III, his youngest and favourite died in 1810, aged twenty-seven, following many years of ill health, distressed George so much.  Maybe this was the final straw in his prolonged bouts of madness, and why he didn’t recover as he had done from previous attacks.

On the 14th July 1789, a revolution broke out in France, as the Bastille was stormed.

This violent upheaval towards the end of the 18th century, was caused by bankruptcy, high taxes, hunger and poverty, and the kings lack of authority.

On the 21st January 1793, King Louis XVI was sent to the guillotine, which sent shockwaves through Europe.

In 1798 Income Tax was introduced.

Britain was at war with France once again, and Nelson destroys the French Fleet at the Battle of the Nile in 1798, plus French and Spanish Fleets off Trafalgar in 1805.  In 1809, British forces defeat the French at the Battle of Corunna, and in 1814 defeat Napoleon at Laon and Toulouse.

On the 18th June 1815 Napoleon Bonaparte is defeated by British and Prussian armies at the Battle of Waterloo.  He surrenders to the British on the 15th July and dies on the 5th May 1821, as a prisoner on the island of St.Helena.

In 1807, the Slave Trade Act is introduced by William Wilberforce, which saw the abolishment of slave trading throughout the British Empire.

In 1811, George, the Prince of Wales becomes Regent of England, as King George III was no longer fit to reign.

In 1815, Parliament passed the Corn Laws Act, protecting British agriculture from cheap imports.

Queen Charlotte died on the 17th November 1818 at Kew Palace in the presence of her son, Prince Regent; George the Prince of Wales, and on the 2nd December 1818 is buried at St.George’s Chapel, Windsor.

On the 29th January 1820, King George III died at Windsor Castle, and was buried at Windsor.

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