Stuart King: James I

James I was born on the 19th June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, Scotland to parents Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley.

On the 29th July 1567, he was crowned King James VI of Scotland, after his mother, Mary Queen of Scots, abdicated the throne in favour of her son.

His father was murdered in 1567, and his mother fled to England, seeking help from the English to reclaim her throne.  She spent her life, as an English prisoner, and was eventually executed for her involvement in plotting against the life of Elizabeth I in 1587.

King James VI of Scotland/ King James I of England married Anne of Denmark by proxy on the 20th August, 1589 then in person on the 23rd November 1589 and again on the 21st January 1590.

Anne bore James eight children, only three survived past infancy:

Henry, the Prince of Wales (19th February 1594 – 6th November 1612).

Elizabeth Stewart (19th August 1596 – 13th February 1662).

King Charles I who became King of England, Scotland and Ireland, (19th November 1600 – 30th January 1649).

On the 24th July 1603 James VI of Scotland ascended to the English throne, following the death of Queen Elizabeth I.  On the 25th July, was crowned King James I of England at Westminster Abbey.

In 1604 King James i imposed a tax on tobacco, proclaiming that smoking is harmful to ones lungs.

In 1605 Guy Fawkes and other Catholic conspirators, attempted to blow up the Houses of Parliament; The Gunpowder Plot.  They were betrayed before the fuse could be lit, arrested and executed.

In 1611, the King James version of the Bible, was translated from Greek and Hebrew, into English and published. 

James believed that Kings took their authority from God, but accepted his actions were subject to the laws of the land.  He was often in dispute with Parliament, over the royal finances, as his predecessors have been, before him.

Arabella Stuart married William Seymour in 1611, the nephew of Lady Jane grey without the royal permission of King James I.  Arabella was placed under house arrest and William was sent to the Tower of London.  Arabella’s plotting of their release was foiled; she ended up in the Tower of London, where she died in 1615, and William gained his freedom.

In 1612, Henry the Prince of Wales died from suspected typhoid, and Charles became heir apparent to the English throne.

In 1613, Elizabeth the daughter of King James marries Frederick V, Elector of Palatine, and their descendants in the House of Hanover would eventually ascend, to the English throne.

The Thirty years War (1618-1648), spread across Europe.  James faced with financial issues, summoned Parliament in 1621.  The House of Commons opted to discuss foreign policies, which led to James dissolving Parliament. 

James wanted closer relations with Spain, but Parliament was against the idea.  They saw Spain, a Catholic enemy who could not be trusted.  For Queen Elizabeth I had conflict with Spain, and the attempted English invasion of the Spanish Armada.

In the 1580’s King James publicly kissed Francis Stewart Hepburn, the Earl of Bothwell.  George Villiers was known to have had an intimate relationship with King James, who was appointed the Earl of Buckingham in 1617.

King James I of England who reigned for 22 years and as James VI of Scotland, reigned for 57 years, died on the 27th March 1625, from gout and senility at Theobald’s Park, Herfordshire, and was buried in the Henry VII chapel in Westminster Abbey.  

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